There have been a lot of developments in the last years in machine learning. One of the main developments of course has been deep learning, but now also generative adversarial networks are becoming more and more interesting.
In some of my presentations I have been using the following graph to model and explain the most common machine learning algorithms. There are many more variations, but if you are new to this field it may help you get a good overview of machine learning.
Feel free to re-use the image if you credit me as source.